Activity: Array Manipulation

Arrays can be made for any type of value. This allows arrays to be used in a wide variety of circumstances, with a wide variety of types.

To make interactions with arrays easier, a variety of functions are available that can manipulate different arrays.

Concept: Push and Pop

A common use for arrays is to treat them as a stack: adding elements to the top of the stack, and removing the last element that was added to it.

This behavior could be thought of as the same as a stack of plates: the most recently cleaned plate will be placed on top of the stack, and the last plate that was stacked will be the first one to be taken off and used when dinner is made.

In JavaScript, an array can be treated like a stack by using ||arrays:array.push|| and ||arrays:array.pop||.

Image of shapes in array being pushed and popped

The ||arrays:array.push|| function is used to add a new value to the end of an array (the top of the stack), and the ||arrays:array.pop|| function is used to obtain (and remove) the value at the end of the array.

Example #1a: Push

  1. Review the code below
  2. Identify how ||arrays:push|| is used to add a new item to ||variables:script||
  3. Identify which index the value is added to in ||variables:script||
let script: string[] = ["hello", "goodbye", "arcade"];

game.splash(script[script.length - 1]);

Example #1b: Pop

  1. Review the code below
  2. Identify how ||arrays:pop|| is used to remove an element from the ||variables:script||
  3. Identify which values from the ||variables:script|| will be logged
let script: string[] = ["hello", "goodbye", "arcade"];

for (let i = 0; i < script.length; i++) {

Student Task #1: Repeat Back What You Said

  1. In a new project, create a ||arrays:string array|| ||variables:youSaid||
  2. Use a ||loops:for|| loop to ||game:game.askForString|| 4 times, with the prompt “What did you say?”
  3. In the loop, ||arrays:push|| each of the users response into the ||variables:youSaid|| array
  4. Create another ||loops:for|| loop after the first one that also repeats 4 times. In it, ||game:splash|| each value from ||variables:youSaid|| using ||arrays:pop||
  5. Is the output in the same order that it was originally inputted? Explain why or why not

Concept: Loops with ||arrays:Push|| and ||arrays:Pop||

In the previous task, it was specified to loop exactly 4 times. This may seem odd: in most other cases, ||arrays:array.length|| has been used to identify the length of the array, rather than using a specific value.

This was avoided because it can result in tricky behavior. An example of this can be seen in the code snippet below. The intention of the snippet is to print out each word in ||variables:script|| backwards.

let script: string[] = ["Hello", "my", "name", "is", "Bob", ":)"];

for (let i = 0; i < script.length; i++) {

When the code runs, it only prints out half the values in the array. This is because the length of the ||variables:script|| is changed as elements are ||arrays:popped|| off of it.

This can be seen by modifying the previous snippet very slightly. This snippet will splash the value of ||variables:i|| and ||arrays:script.length||.

let script: string[] = ["Hello", "my", "name", "is", "Bob", ":)"];

for (let i = 0; i < script.length; i++) {
    game.splash("i = " + i + " len = " + script.length);

When removing values from an array, it is common to use another type of loop: the ||loops:while|| loop. This is the same loop as the ||loops:while do|| loop from Blocks.

A ||loops:while|| loop can be thought of simply as an ||logic:if|| statement that repeats until it is false.

Example #2: ||loops:while|| Loop

This example is a fixed version of the snippet that was broken above.

  1. Review the code below
  2. Identify what condition the ||loops:while|| loop will continue
let script: string[] = ["Hello", "my", "name", "is", "bob", ":)"];

while (script.length > 0) {

Student Task #2: ||loops:while|| You Are Talking

  1. Start with the code from task #1
  2. Change the first loop to a ||loops:while|| loop. Make the condition for this a ||game:game.ask|| with the prompt “Do you have more to say?”
  3. Change the second loop to a ||loops:while|| loop, that will repeat every word that was previously entered

Concept: Random Selection

In games, it is common to use an array of strings to represent the “script” for a given character - that is, a group of words and phrases they can say. So far, this has been handled sequentially: reading through each value in the array one by one, either forwards or backwards.

The ||math:Math.pickRandom|| function can be used to pick a random element out of an array. This allows the “script” to be used to respond to the player in a way that is different for every run of the game.

Example #3: Random ||game:Splashing||

  1. Review the code below
  2. Identify how ||math:Math.pickRandom|| is used to generate a random word
  3. Run the code multiple times. Are the values that are splashed the same?
let script: string[] = ["potato", "corgi", "software", "elevator", "map"];

for (let i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

Student Task #3: Random Responses

  1. Create two sprites: a ||sprites:Player||, that is controlled using ||controller:controller.moveSprite||, and a ||sprites:Friend||. Set the ||sprites:Friend|| ||sprites:x|| position to 130
  2. Create an ||sprites:on overlap|| event between the ||sprites:Player|| and the ||sprites:Friend||
  3. Store an array of strings in the variable ||variables:greetings||. Include at least 4 short greetings (for example, “hello friend!”)
  4. In the ||sprites:on overlap|| event, make the ||sprites:Friend|| ||sprites:say|| a ||math:random|| string from ||variables:greetings|| for 500 ms
  5. Use the ||sprites:Ghost|| ||sprites:SpriteFlag|| to prevent the ||sprites:overlap|| event from triggerring for 1000 ms

The implementation of ||math:Math.pickRandom|| is fairly simple; besides some typing and error handling, you can reimplement it in a single line! For a given array ||variables:list||, choosing a random element can be handled using the following snippet:

list[randint[0, list.length - 1]];

||math:Math.pickRandom|| is typically a lot easier to read, though.

What did we learn?

  1. How do ||arrays:push|| and ||arrays:pop|| allow for easy array manipulation?
  2. How can random behavior improve games?

Before moving on to the next lesson, it is recommended that you check out the selected problems for this section to review the material and practice the concepts introduced in this section.

Case Study

Redundant Sayings

In the ||sprites:overlap event|| between Player and PowerUp, the player always ||sprites:say||s something based off the power up that has been collected. Reduce the redundancy between the ||logic:if|| and ||logic:else if|| branches by storing the possible responses in an array of strings, with each response stored at the index corresponding to the PowerUpType.

Star Field Effect

In previous sections, Stars were added to the background as projectiles. These look nice, but the stars can be handled more easily with the starField particle effect. In the status namespace, start the effect using the snippet below and remove the previous Stars from the game (or leave them as is, if you prefer the simple stars to this effect).


As a side note, this is an example of something that can happen regularly when developing software: working on a feature for a bit (in this case, stars for the background), only to find out about an easier way to do it later on and get rid of the code you wrote. It is important to know that this is a good thing!

You likely learned new things while writing the code, and finding a better solution means that you learned more now, too; recognizing how new things you’ve learned can be applied to handle older work more easily is an important part of software development.


Note: the star namespace was also deleted from the example in this lesson.

namespace SpriteKind {
    export const Asteroid = SpriteKind.create();
    export const PowerUp = SpriteKind.create();
    export const Laser = SpriteKind.create();

namespace powerups {
    let availablePowerUps = [

    export let responses: string[] = [];
    responses[PowerUpType.Health] = "Got health!";
    responses[PowerUpType.Score] = "Score!";
    responses[PowerUpType.EnergyUp] = "More Energy!";

namespace overlapevents {
    sprites.onOverlap(SpriteKind.Player, SpriteKind.PowerUp, function (sprite: Sprite, otherSprite: Sprite) {
        let powerUp: number = powerups.getType(otherSprite);
        sprite.say(powerups.responses[powerUp], 500);
        if (powerUp == PowerUpType.Health) {
        } else if (powerUp == PowerUpType.Score) {
        } else if (powerUp == PowerUpType.EnergyUp) {

namespace status {